For more than 30 years, Gaétan Dugas was blamed for bringing the AIDS epidemic to the United States. A French-Canadian who died in 1984, Dugas was thought to have carried the disease to America and transmitted it to scores of sexual partners while working as a flight attendant.
But this week, scientists finally cleared the name of the man who, in the history of the AIDS epidemic, came to be known as “Patient Zero.”
In a study published in the journal Nature, the researchers found that blood sampled from Dugas in 1983 contained the same strain of HIV that was infecting men in New York City as early as 1971 — three years before he arrived in the U.S. as an employee for Air Canada.
“In short, we found no evidence that Patient 0 was the first person infected by this lineage of HIV-1,” the researchers wrote.
The study builds on decades of research that has sought to answer the medical mystery of how exactly AIDS made its way to the U.S.
The SASH study (Impact of Poor Sleep and Inflammation on the Adenosine Signaling Pathway in HIV Infection) seeks to understand how sleep can affect the health of people living with HIV.
Study participants complete questionnaires before and after getting a watch-like device similar to a Fitbit. Subjects wear the device for two weeks, to track their sleep patterns. Subjects also answer a few questions in a diary each morning about their sleep.
The study involves two visits to Montefiore Hospital. Each visit is about one hour in length. Participants will receive up to $100. Parking vouchers and/or bus fare will also be provided.
For more information, call the study team at 412-330-1453, or send an email to email@example.com.
Researchers from Duke University School of Nursing in Durham, N.C., are turning to a ubiquitous locale — beauty salons — to help raise HIV prevention awareness among Black women in the South. Salons are often considered safe spaces for intimate conversations.
The numbers highlight the stark need: Black women, who make up 13% of the U.S. population, account for 64% of new HIV infections among U.S. women. They also make up 69% of all new HIV infections in the South, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Schenita D. Randolph, PhD, MPH, RN, CNE, and her research partner, Ragan Johnson, DNP, APRN-BC, both assistant professors at Duke University, developed a strategy to help prevent HIV spread in their region by focusing on Black women who have not been exposed to the virus.
The strategy involves training stylists to start conversations about HIV, educating women about HIV prevention, and linking them to prevention medication (pre-exposure prophylaxis or PrEP).
The research team received two-year funding from Gilead Sciences, which manufactures the HIV prevention medication Truvada, to put a pilot program in place.
Randolph explained that 44% of the people who could benefit from PrEP in the U.S. are African American (500,000). However, only 1% in that group have been prescribed PrEP, despite evidence that if taken once a day it can lower a person’s risk for getting HIV through sex by more than 90%.
In 2018, 37,968 people received an HIV diagnosis in the United States (US) and dependent areas. From 2014 to 2018, HIV diagnoses decreased 7% among adults and adolescents. However, annual diagnoses have increased among some groups.
Gay and bisexual men are the population most affected by HIV, with Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino gay and bi men having the highest rates of new infections.
The number of new HIV diagnoses was highest among people aged 25 to 34.
Source: CDC. Diagnoses of HIV infection in the United States and dependent areas, 2018 (updated). HIV Surveillance Report 2020;31.
From the World Health Organization (WHO)…
On 1 December WHO joins partners in paying tribute to all those working to provide HIV services, and in calling on global leaders and citizens to rally for “global solidarity” to maintain essential HIV services during COVID 19 and beyond. It is a call to focus on vulnerable groups who are already at risk and expand coverage to children and adolescents. And in 2020, the International Year of the Nurse and the Midwife, it is a call for more protection and support to these health workers who have long been on the frontline of HIV service delivery. We can all contribute to the effort to end AIDS and make the world a healthier place.
Find out more on the WHO Website.
Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Nebraska Medical Center are looking for participants living with HIV, and participants not living with HIV, for a non-invasive brain imaging research study.
The purpose of the first research study is to investigate brain activity, cognitive functioning, and aging in those living with HIV versus those living without HIV. The human brain and cognitive abilities change as people age, and this research study aims to identify those changes.
The purpose of the second research study is to investigate how chronic cannabis use affects brain activity and cognitive functioning differently in people who are living with HIV and those who are not living with HIV.
To study the brain, researchers will be using a series of brain imaging tests, both of which are completely non-invasive.
There is no cost to you, and you will receive compensation for your time and travel expenses.
You may be eligible if:
- You are between the ages of 19 and 72
- You have not had a stroke or been diagnosed with any neurological or psychiatric disorder(s)
- You are able to complete a series of mental tasks You are not pregnant or planning to become pregnant
- You either regularly use cannabis or do not use cannabis
This research study is sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health. For more information, please call 412-246-5590 or send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org. You can also download the study brochure.
Cross-posted from Healthcare.gov blog
You have until December 15 to apply for new 2021 health insurance, or renew, change, or update your 2020 health plan for 2021. Coverage starts January 1, 2021.
Important: If you miss the deadline, the only way you’ll be eligible to enroll in or change your health plan for 2021 is if you qualify for a Special Enrollment Period.
How to start or update an application online
- If you’re new to HealthCare.gov, create an account.
- If you already have an account, just log in to start or update an application.
- If you have questions or need help with your application, you can connect with someone on the phone. Call Center Representatives are available most days (except certain holidays) to support your enrollment needs.
See other ways to apply.
While current antiretroviral treatments for HIV are highly effective, data has shown that people living with HIV appear to experience accelerated aging and have shorter lifespans—by up to five to 10 years—compared to people without HIV. These outcomes have been associated with chronic inflammation, which could lead to the earlier onset of age-associated diseases, such as atherosclerosis, cancers, or neurocognitive decline.